Website latest update on October 11, 2019

Welcome to the SR-NIEL Calculator Website. In these pages you can find information about the Screened Relativistic (SR) Calculator of the Non-Ionizing Energy Loss of electrons, protons and ions passing through an absorber, generating displacement damages and, in case of semiconductors, introducing deep levels resulting from the Frenkel pairs created. NIEL doses (also termed "displacement damage doses") are also provided.

Furthermore a calculator for the nuclear stopping powers of electrons, protons, light- and heavy-ions is available. The calculations are carried out based on the screened relativistic treatment for (elastic) Coulomb interactions on nuclei from low up to ultra relativistic energies.

In the present website version, a calculator for the probability of generating energetic recoil nuclei is also available. From version 1.5.2, additionally, the estimates of recoil energy fractions deposited via ionizing and non-ionizing processes are accessible using two of the mostly employed analytical approximations of energy partition function.
From version 2.0 the electronic stopping power and ionizing dose calculator are also available.

From version 2.1 the current calculator allows one to obains NIEL  values and NIEL doses for neutrons in Si and GaAs absorbers, derived from ASTM-722-09 and ASTM-722-14 standards.

From version 3.0 registered users can access to SR-NIEL web calculators with additionally implemented Akkerman and Barak (2006) partition function; For information please contact This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Currently, additional functionalities implemented into NIEL calculators for registered users are:

  • electron NIEL with Akkerman partition function;
  • proton and ion NIEL with Akkerman partition function;
  • NIEL dose calculators for neutrons and neutron spectral fluence in some elements (C, N, Si, Ga, As, from version 3.5.1 0, Al, P, In, Cd, Te, Ge, Zn, Se, Sb, from version 3.9 Cu, Hg, Pb, S, Sn, from version 3.9.2 B, Bi, Cl, Tl, from version 4.5.0 Li, Ti, Mn, Br, Sr, Nb, Mo, Ag, I, Ba, La, Eu, U and from version 4.6.0 also H, He, Be, F, Na, Mg, Ar, K, Ca, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni) and their compounds, using Robinson and Akkerman partition functions. The complete set of nuclei for neutron dose calculators was made avaible with version 5.0.0 and is illustrated at this page.
    Furthermore, a critical discussion on the usage of 1 MeV neutron equivalent is also available to registered users.

In addition, for registered users are available the following long write-ups:

  • NIEL for Electrons and Protons (with only Coulomb scattering and, also, including hadronic contribution) in Silicon employing Robinson and Akkerman partition functions;
  • NIEL dose calculation for neutron using Robinson and Akkerman partition functions;
  • comparison of Damage Functions obtained with Akkerman and Robinson Partition Functions for some compounds;
  • determination of the Damage Function at 1 MeV for Si and some compounds.

More pieces of information about sr-treatment are currently available from the website dedicated to the physics of displacement damage, due to neutron, proton, ion and electron interactions on nuclei.

At present, in the sr-niel website, calculators for ionizing energy losses (and doses) of electrons, protons and ions  are also available. In addition, from version 5.5 it is availabe a calculator to determine the residual spectral fluence for particles traversing a shielding material.

This project is part of the activities on going at the sr-niel/ASIF/AMS-02 Milano Bicocca group.

The implementation of SR-NIEL treatment and derived SR-NIEL calculators into ESA (European Space Agency) codes (e.g., SPENVIS, GRAS and Mulassis) is accomplished under ESA contract 4000116146/16/NL/HK with title "Non-Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL) Calculation and Verification".

For any comment, remark and suggestion, please contact us by email This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Read about privacy and cookies

From version 3.0 the sr-niel website allows one to access to additional functionalities to be gradually implemented.

These additional features are no longer freely accessible, because the data are not yet published and are supposed to be available, at the moment, for scientific reasons only and/or collaborating scientists. These NIEL values can be revised as a result of ongoing scientific discussions. Thus, a motivated registration is needed to get use of them.

No registration page is currently available, but potentially interested users should contact us for their requests, by email (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.), specifying their institution and foreseen usage of the data.
The login formation  and password will be provided directly to the final user. Personal information used for the registration process will be treated according to GDPR european policy.

Currently, additional functionalities implenented into NIEL calculators for registered users are:

  • electron NIEL with Akkerman partition function;
  • proton and ion NIEL with Akkerman partition function;
  • NIEL dose calculators for neutrons and neutron spectral fluence in some elements (C, N, Si, Ga, As, from version 3.5.1 0, Al, P, In, Cd, Te, Ge, Zn, Se, Sb, from version 3.9 Cu, Hg, Pb, S, Sn, from version 3.9.2 B, Bi, Cl, Tl, from version 4.5.0 Li, Ti, Mn, Br, Sr, Nb, Mo, Ag, I, Ba, La, Eu, U and from version 4.6.0 also H, He, Be, F, Na, Mg, Ar, K, Ca, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni) and their compounds, using Robinson and Akkerman partition functions. The complete set of nuclei for neutron dose calculators was made avaible with version 5.0.0 and is illustrated at this page.

In addition, for registered users are available the following long write-ups: 

  • NIEL for Electrons and Protons (with only Coulomb scattering and, also, including hadronic contribution) in Silicon employing Robinson and Akkerman partition functions;
  • NIEL dose calculation for neutron using Robinson and Akkerman partition functions; 
  • comparison of Damage Functions obtained with Akkerman and Robinson Partition Functions for some compounds;
  • determination of the Damage Function at 1 MeV for Si and some compounds.

Example of how to reference this online database: (Replace year, month with database access date)


M.J. Boschini, P.G. Rancoita and M. Tacconi (2014), SR-NIEL Calculator: Screened Relativistic (SR) Treatment for Calculating the Displacement Damage and Nuclear Stopping Powers for Electrons, Protons, Light- and Heavy- Ions in Materials (version 6.0.4); [Online] available at INFN sez. Milano-Bicocca, Italy [year, month ]: http://www.sr-niel.org/.


Optional addition:
Screened Relativistic Treatments from Chapters 2, 7 and 11 of C. Leroy and P.G. Rancoita (2016), Principles of Radiation Interaction in Matter and Detection - 4th Edition -, World Scientific, Singapore (see also references therein); C. Baur et al. (2014), NIEL dose dependence for solar cells irradiated with electrons and protons, Proc. of the 14th ICATPP, September 23--27 2013, Villa Olmo, Como, Italy, S. Giani, C. Leroy, L. Price, P.G. Rancoita and R. Ruchti, Editors, World Scientific, Singapore, 698-713; Chapter 1 of C. Leroy and P.G. Rancoita (2012), Silicon Solid State Devices and Radiation Detection, World Scientific, Singapore.

6.0.4 new page in handbook about TID and SEEs when restricted energy-loss is employed
Oct.2019  

6.0.3 new page in handbook about the restricted energy-loss treatment within SR-NIEL framework
Oct.2019  

6.0.2 new page in handbook about the particle flux as a function of particle energy or electronic stopping power
Aug.2019  

6.0.1 Incident particle mass can be modified in SRIM based calculators
Jun.2019  

6.0.0 Electronic stopping power calculators for spectral fluence implemented
Jun.2019  

5.7.0 Residual energy for electrons traversing a material is available
Jun.2019  

5.6.0 Radiative contribution added to electronic stopping power for electrons
May.2019  

5.5.1 Residual energy for protons and ions traversing a material is available
May.2019  

5.5.0 Residual spectral fluence for protons and ions traversing a material is available
May.2019  

5.1.1 Change table title "Dose" to "Ionizing Dose" for electronic stopping power calculators
Apr.2019  

5.1.0 Nuclear recoil probability calculators for spectral fluence added
Apr.2019  

5.0.1 Electronic Stopping Power, Deposited Energy and Fermi Plateau of Massive Particles with z=1 in Silicon
Mar.2019  

5.0.0 New target elements for NJOY based calculators
Mar.2019  

4.6.1 Summary page for elements for NJOY based calculators
Feb.2019  

4.6.0 New target elements for NJOY based calculators
Jan.2019  

4.5.1 NIEL dose calculators for neutron spectral fluence were revised
Jan.2019  

4.5.0 New target elements for NJOY based calculators
Dec.2018  

4.4.0 ASIF TNID calculator for neutrons implemented
Oct.2018  

4.3.0 ASIF TID converter for protons and ions implemented
Oct.2018  

4.2.0 ASIF TNID calculator for protons and ions implemented
Oct.2018  

4.1.0 Upper limit set for electronic stopping power to dose converter for electrons
Oct.2018  

4.0.1 Minor website improvements
Sep.2018  

4.0.0 Physics handbook embedded in sr-niel website
Sep.2018  

3.9.8 Dose calculators for spectral fluence updated
Sep.2018  

3.9.7 Website restyled
Sep.2018  

3.9.6 Hadronic NIEL estimation included in test58
Jul.2018  

3.9.5 Comparison of neutron damage function in Bi and Si added
Feb.2018  

3.9.4 test58 revised for Geant4 version 10.4
Jan.2018  

3.9.3 Geant4 electrons class and test58 updated
Oct.2017  

3.9.2 B,Bi,Cl,Tl added as target for NJOY Neutrons NIEL calculators.
Sep.2017  

3.9.1 Neutrons long write-up pages updated with NJOY 2016 values along with NJOY 2012.50 
Jun.2017  

3.9.0 Neutron NJOY calculators updated with NJOY 2016 values. Cu,Hg,Pb,S,Sn also added as possible target 
May.2017  

3.8.0 Predefined compound semiconductors and alloy systems implemented as target 
May.2017  

3.7.0 New revision for hadronic contribution to NIEL 
May.2017  

3.6.1 test58 updated 
Mar.2017  

3.6.0 NIEL hadronic contribution revised 
Feb.2017  

3.5.4 example test58 for Geant4 ver. 10.3 is available for download 
Dec.2016  

3.5.3 Single scattering classes for Geant4 ver. 10.3 are available for download 
Dec.2016  

3.5.2 Hadronic NIEL contribution added for silicon absorbers and incoming proton energies up to 24 GeV and added a no scaling option for hadronic contribution.
Oct.2016  

3.5.1 Additional target nuclei added in NJOY based calculators
Oct.2016  

3.5.0 Hadronic contribution for inpinging α particle is available in NIEL calculators
Sep.2016  

3.4.2 NIEL Dose Calculator for Electrons, Protons & Ions spectral fluence using both Robinson and Akkerman partition function is available for registered users
Sep.2016  

3.4.1 Cross reference with http://srnielhandbook.altervista.org added
Sep.2016  

3.4.0 NIEL Dose Calculator for Electrons, Protons & Ions spectral fluence is available.
Jul.2016  

3.3.0 NIEL Dose Calculator for Neutrons spectral fluence obtained with software NJOY is available for registered users
Jul.2016  

3.2.0 Neutrons NIEL Calculators from values obtained with software NJOY is available for registered users
Jul.2016  

3.1.0 Detailed comparisons are currently available regarding the usage of Akkerman and Robinson partition functions for electrons, protons, ions and neutrons.
Jun.2016  

3.0.2 It's now possible to specify different recoil and target nucleus in the partition function calculator
Jun.2016  

3.0.1 Added table of printed values to the partition function calculator
Jun.2016  

3.0.0 NIEL Calculators employing Akkerman partition function is available for registered users.
May.2016  

2.8.0 New site SR-NIEL handbook is available. Some links were moved on the top panel.
Feb.2016  

2.7.1 ASTM-E722-14 damage function is now included in neutrons calculators
Feb.2016  

2.7.0 Electronic Stopping Power Calculator for Electrons is included.
Dec.2015  

2.6.0 Electronic Stopping Power Calculator for protons and ions supports now a compounds list
Dec.2015  

2.5.0 SR-NIEL Treatment in Geant4 included
Nov. 2015  

2.1.2 Total NIEL Dose for Neutrons is included
July 2015  

2.1.1 Hardness Parameter Calculator is now included
May 2015  

2.1.0 NIEL Calculator supports now neutrons in Si and GaAs
May 2015  

2.0.4 Electronic Stopping Power Calculator supports now compounds with 10 elements
Mar. 2015  

2.0.3 Energetic Nuclear Recoil Calculators support now compounds with 10 elements.
Mar. 2015  

2.0.2 Nuclear Stopping Power Calculators support now compounds with 10 elements.
Mar. 2015  

2.0.1 NIEL Calculators support now compounds with 10 elements.
Mar. 2015  

2.0.0 Electronic Stopping Power for electrons, protons and ions included.
Feb. 2015  

1.5.4 Element Fraction included in Calculators.
Feb. 2015  

1.5.3 Dose included in the NIEL Calculator.
Dec. 2014  

1.5.2 Partition function calculator implemented.
Dec. 2014  

1.5.1 Energetic Recoil Calculator Added.
Dec. 2014  

1.5.0 Web program and documentation online.
Nov. 2014  

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