Screened Relativistic (SR) Treatment for Calculating the Displacement Damage NIEL Doses and Nuclear Stopping Powers in Materials
SR-NIEL and Nuclear Stopping Power (and Doses) Calculators for Elements and Compounds (for instance, semiconductors)
Website latest update on April 3, 2020
Welcome to the SR-NIEL Calculator Website. In these pages you can find information about the Screened Relativistic (SR) Calculator of the Non-Ionizing Energy Loss of electrons, protons and ions passing through an absorber, generating displacement damages and, in case of semiconductors, introducing deep levels resulting from the Frenkel pairs created. NIEL doses (also termed "displacement damage doses") are also provided.
Furthermore a calculator for the nuclear stopping powers of electrons, protons, light- and heavy-ions is available. The calculations are carried out based on the screened relativistic treatment for (elastic) Coulomb interactions on nuclei from low up to ultra relativistic energies.
In the present website version, a calculator for the probability of generating energetic recoil nuclei is also available. From version 1.5.2, additionally, the estimates of recoil energy fractions deposited via ionizing and non-ionizing processes are accessible using two of the mostly employed analytical approximations of energy partition function.
From version 2.0 the electronic stopping power and ionizing dose calculator are also available.
From version 2.1 the current calculator allows one to obains NIEL values and NIEL doses for neutrons in Si and GaAs absorbers, derived from ASTM-722-09 and ASTM-722-14 standards.
Currently, additional functionalities implemented into NIEL calculators for registered users are:
- electron NIEL with Akkerman partition function;
- proton and ion NIEL with Akkerman partition function;
- NIEL dose calculators for neutrons and neutron spectral fluence in some elements (C, N, Si, Ga, As, from version 3.5.1 0, Al, P, In, Cd, Te, Ge, Zn, Se, Sb, from version 3.9 Cu, Hg, Pb, S, Sn, from version 3.9.2 B, Bi, Cl, Tl, from version 4.5.0 Li, Ti, Mn, Br, Sr, Nb, Mo, Ag, I, Ba, La, Eu, U and from version 4.6.0 also H, He, Be, F, Na, Mg, Ar, K, Ca, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni) and their compounds, using Robinson and Akkerman partition functions. The complete set of nuclei for neutron dose calculators was made avaible with version 5.0.0 and is illustrated at this page.
Furthermore, a critical discussion on the usage of 1 MeV neutron equivalent is also available to registered users.
In addition, for registered users are available the following long write-ups:
- NIEL for Electrons and Protons (with only Coulomb scattering and, also, including hadronic contribution) in Silicon employing Robinson and Akkerman partition functions;
- NIEL dose calculation for neutron using Robinson and Akkerman partition functions;
- comparison of Damage Functions obtained with Akkerman and Robinson Partition Functions for some compounds;
- determination of the Damage Function at 1 MeV for Si and some compounds.
More pieces of information about sr-treatment are currently available from the website dedicated to the physics of displacement damage, due to neutron, proton, ion and electron interactions on nuclei.
At present, in the sr-niel website, calculators for ionizing energy losses (and doses) of electrons, protons and ions are also available. In addition, from version 5.5 it is availabe a calculator to determine the residual spectral fluence for particles traversing a shielding material. The high energy extension of the electronic stopping powers of protons and ions is accessible with version 6.2.3.
The implementation of SR-NIEL treatment and derived SR-NIEL calculators into ESA (European Space Agency) codes (e.g., SPENVIS, GRAS and Mulassis) is accomplished under ESA contract 4000116146/16/NL/HK with title "Non-Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL) Calculation and Verification".