Handbook of SR-NIEL and Nuclear Stopping Power (and Doses) Calculators for Elements and Compounds (for instance, semiconductors)
Welcome to the relativistic screening (SR) treatment handbook Website. In these pages you can find information about physics process regarding the Screened Relativistic (SR) Calculator of the Non-Ionizing Energy Loss of electrons, protons and ions passing through an absorber, generating displacement damages and, in case of semiconductors, introducing deep levels resulting from the Frenkel pairs created. NIEL doses (also termed "displacement damage doses") are also provided.
The notation of screened relativistic (SR) NIEL was introduced by Baur et al. (2014). It is treated in Sects. 11.3.1, 11.3.2 of Leroy and Rancoita (2016) and Sect. 2 of Baur et al. (2014). The SR-NIEL is derived from the SR (screened relativistic) nuclear stopping power for electrons (e.g., see Sect. 2.4.3 of Leroy and Rancoita (2016)) and the SR nuclear stopping power for massive particle at relativistic energies (e.g., see Sect.2.2.2 of Leroy and Rancoita (2016)).
Furthermore in the SR-NIEL website, based on the physics framework here illustrated, an online calculator for the nuclear stopping powers of electrons, protons, light- and heavy-ions is available. The calculations are carried out based on the screened relativistic treatment for (elastic) Coulomb interactions on nuclei from low up to ultra relativistic energies.
In the SR-NIEL website, there are calculators available also for i) the probability of generating energetic recoil nuclei, ii) for the estimates of recoil energy fractions deposited via ionizing and non-ionizing processe - using two of the mostly employed analytical approximations of energy partition function - and iii) the electronic stopping power and ionizing dose.
The user can additionally access to calculators which allow one to obtains NIEL values and NIEL doses for neutrons in Si and GaAs absorbers, derived from ASTM-722-09 and ASTM-722-14 standards.
Registered users can access to SR-NIEL web calculators i) in which it is implemented the Akkerman and Barak (2006) partition function and ii) to get NIEL doses for neutrons and neutron spectral fluence in some elements (C, N, Si, Ga, As, from version 3.5.1 0, Al, P, In, Cd, Te, Ge, Zn, Se, Sb, from version 3.9 Cu, Hg, Pb, S, Sn, from version 3.9.2 B, Bi, Cl, Tl, from version 4.5.0 Li, Ti, Mn, Br, Sr, Nb, Mo, Ag, I, Ba, La, Eu, U and from version 4.6.0 also H, He, Be, F, Na, Mg, Ar, K, Ca, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni) and their compounds, using Robinson and Akkerman partition functions. Additional nuclei available after version 4.6.0 are listed at this page. A critical discussion on the usage of 1 MeV neutron equivalent is also available.
Furthermore, the high energy extension of electronic stopping power (referred to as SR-framework electronic stopping power) for elements and compounds is accessible to registered users, The corresponding long write-ups are found among the topics treated inside the section on Electronic stopping power and restricted energy loss.
At present, in the SR-NIEL website, calculators for ionizing energy losses (and doses) of electrons, protons and ions are also available. Thus, a few topics on electronic stopping power and related issues are discussed in the current Physics Handbook.
The implementation of SR-NIEL treatment and derived SR-NIEL calculators into ESA (European Space Agency) codes (e.g., SPENVIS, GRAS and Mulassis) is accomplished under ESA contract 4000116146/16/NL/HK with title "Non-Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL) Calculation and Verification".
Available SR-NIEL Physics topics:
Screened relativistic (SR) treatment
SR-NIEL and displacement stopping power
Energy Partition Functions
Nuclear stopping power for electrons, protons, ions
SR-NIEL and Solar Cells
GaAs SR-NIEL tables
SR-NIEL and displacement stopping power for Neutrons
- Summary of neutron damage function, NIEL and hardness parameter
- Neutron spectral fluence
- Hardness parameter and 1MeV neutron equivalent
- NIEL and minority carrier lifetime
- NIEL dose calculation for neutron using Robinson and Akkerman partition functions (registered users)
- Comparison of Damage Functions obtained with Akkerman and Robinson Partition Functions (registered users)
- Determination of the Damage Function at 1 MeV (registered users)
- Neutron Damage Function in Bi and Si (registered users)
SR-NIEL embedded in GRAS, Geant4, Mulassis, Spenvis
- Electronic Stopping Power and Linear Energy Transfer
- Massive Particles with z=1 in Silicon: Electronic Stopping Power, Deposited Energy and Experimental Evidence of approaching the Fermi Plateau
- Restricted energy-loss treatment within SR-NIEL framework for dealing with particle energy deposition in a medium
- Impact of solar modulation on particle flux per unit area as a function of particle energy or electronic stopping power or restricted energy loss
- LET distributions for Fe-ions from SPENVIS, CREME and SR-NIEL/HelMod frameworks: dependence of the estimated number of SEE on solar modulation model
- Case studies on TID and SEEs when restricted energy-loss is employed with respect to the usage of electronic stopping power
- Case study on SEEs employing the restricted energy-loss and dependence on solar modulation model
- Kinetic Energy Thresholds for Traversing 50 mils of Al absorbers
Cosmic rays propagation through heliosphere
Nuclei for neutron damage functions
Physical constants and list of compounds
A comprehenseve treatment of the screened relativistic physical processes is found in: C. Leroy and P.G. Rancoita (2016), Principles of Radiation Interaction in Matter and Detection - 4th Edition -, World Scientific. Singapore, ISBN-978-981-4603-18-8 (printed); ISBN.978-981-4603-19-5 (ebook); http://www.worldscientific.com/worldscibooks/10.1142/9167; it is also partially accessible via google books.