Handbook of SR-NIEL and nuclear stopping power (and TNID doses) calculators for elements and compounds (for instance, semiconductors); sr-framework for electronic stopping powers, restricted energy-losses, TID doses and solar modulation models for cosmic rays
Welcome to the relativistic screening (SR) treatment handbook Website. In these pages you can find information about physics process regarding the Screened Relativistic (SR) Calculator of the Non-Ionizing Energy Loss of electrons, protons and ions passing through an absorber, generating displacement damages and, in case of semiconductors, introducing deep levels resulting from the Frenkel pairs created. NIEL doses (also termed "displacement damage doses") are also provided.
The notation of screened relativistic (SR) NIEL was introduced by Baur et al. (2014). It is treated in Sects. 11.3.1, 11.3.2 of Leroy and Rancoita (2016) and Sect. 2 of Baur et al. (2014). The SR-NIEL is derived from the SR (screened relativistic) nuclear stopping power for electrons (e.g., see Sect. 2.4.3 of Leroy and Rancoita (2016)) and the SR nuclear stopping power for massive particle at relativistic energies (e.g., see Sect.2.2.2 of Leroy and Rancoita (2016)).
Furthermore in the SR-NIEL website, based on the physics framework here illustrated, an online calculator for the nuclear stopping powers of electrons, protons, light- and heavy-ions is available. The calculations are carried out based on the screened relativistic treatment for (elastic) Coulomb interactions on nuclei from low up to ultra relativistic energies.
In the SR-NIEL website, there are calculators available also for i) the probability of generating energetic recoil nuclei, ii) for the estimates of recoil energy fractions deposited via ionizing and non-ionizing process - using two of the mostly employed analytical approximations of energy partition function - and iii) the electronic stopping power and ionizing dose.
The user can additionally access to calculators which allow one to obtains NIEL values and NIEL doses for neutrons in Si and GaAs absorbers, derived from ASTM-722-09, ASTM-722-14 and ASTM-722-19 standards.
Registered users can access to SR-NIEL web calculators i) in which it is implemented the Akkerman and Barak (2006) partition function and ii) to get NIEL doses for neutrons and neutron spectral fluence in some elements (C, N, Si, Ga, As, from version 3.5.1 0, Al, P, In, Cd, Te, Ge, Zn, Se, Sb, from version 3.9 Cu, Hg, Pb, S, Sn, from version 3.9.2 B, Bi, Cl, Tl, from version 4.5.0 Li, Ti, Mn, Br, Sr, Nb, Mo, Ag, I, Ba, La, Eu, U and from version 4.6.0 also H, He, Be, F, Na, Mg, Ar, K, Ca, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni) and their compounds, using Robinson and Akkerman partition functions. Additional nuclei available after version 4.6.0 are listed at this page. From version 8.5, NIEL dose calculation for neutron using Robinson and Akkerman partition functions are available obtained with NJOY-2021. A critical discussion on the usage of 1 MeV neutron equivalent is also available.
At present, in the SR-NIEL website, calculators for ionizing energy losses (and doses) of electrons, protons and ions are also available. Furthermore, the high energy extension of electronic stopping power (referred to as SR-framework electronic stopping power) treatment for elements and compounds is accessible. From version 6.3.0, the web-calculators on electronic stopping powers – regarding the energy lost by particles traversing a medium – are complemented by those on restricted energy-losses to deal with both the energy deposited by incoming particles in absorbers and the approach to Fermi plateau at high energies. The corresponding long write-ups are found among the topics treated in the current Physics Handbook inside the section on Electronic stopping power, restricted energy loss and Solar Modulation and Solar Modulation.
From version 6.4.2, the topics covered in the present physics handbook are enlarged by referring to those treated in related activities discussed within ASIF (ASI Supported Irradiation Facilities), HelMod and GeoMagSphere websites.
This project is part of the activities involving also sr-niel / HelMod /geomagsphere / ASIF /AMS-02 Milano Bicocca group.
The implementation of SR-NIEL treatment and derived SR-NIEL calculators into ESA (European Space Agency) codes (e.g., SPENVIS, GRAS and Mulassis) is accomplished under ESA contract 4000116146/16/NL/HK with title "Non-Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL) Calculation and Verification".
For any comment, remark and suggestion, please contact us by email
Available SR-NIEL Physics treatments and related topics:
Screened relativistic (SR) treatment
SR-NIEL and displacement stopping power
Energy Partition Functions
Nuclear stopping power for electrons, protons, ions
SR-NIEL and Solar Cells
GaAs SR-NIEL tables
SR-NIEL framework and displacement stopping power (NIEL) for Neutrons
- Summary of neutron damage function, NIEL and hardness parameter
- Neutron spectral fluence
- Hardness parameter and 1MeV neutron equivalent
- NIEL and minority carrier lifetime
- Damage functions and Doses from NJOY-2021 and NJOY-2016 when ENDF/B.VIII.0 cross section library is employed
- Results for NIEL in silicon absorber from NJOY 2021 and ASTM-E722 versions
- NIEL doses in Si and GaAs for neutrons using Robinson and Akkerman partition functions
- Comparison of Damage Functions obtained with Akkerman and Robinson Partition Functions (registered users)
- Determination of the Damage Function at 1 MeV (registered users)
- Neutron Damage Function in Bi and Si (registered users)
Nuclei for neutron damage functions
SR-NIEL embedded in GRAS, Geant4, Mulassis, Spenvis
Electronic stopping power, restricted energy loss and Solar Modulation
- Electronic Stopping Power and Linear Energy Transfer
- Massive Particles with z=1 in Silicon: Electronic Stopping Power, Deposited Energy and Experimental Evidence of approaching the Fermi Plateau
- Restricted energy-loss treatment within SR-NIEL framework for dealing with particle energy deposition in a medium
- Impact of solar modulation on particle flux per unit area as a function of particle energy or electronic stopping power or restricted energy los
Particle flux per unit area as a function of particle energy or electronic stopping power/restricted energy loss per unit length, Solar Modulation and SEE
- LET distributions for Fe-ions from SPENVIS, CREME and SR-NIEL/HelMod frameworks: dependence of the estimated number of SEE on solar modulation model
- Case studies on TID and SEEs when restricted energy-loss is employed with respect to the usage of electronic stopping power
- Case study on SEEs employing the restricted energy-loss and dependence on solar modulation model
Kinetic Energy Thresholds for traversing an aluminum absorber
Physical constants and list of compounds
Space Radiation Environment: SR-NIEL and ASIF, HelMod, GeoMagSphere related activitiesHelMod: the solar modulation model of galactic cosmic rays employed within SR-NIEL framework
- HelMod, the solar modulation model of galactic cosmic rays employed within SR-NIEL framework: comparison with AMS-02 data and other commonly employed modulation models
HelMod : the solar modulation model for galactic cosmic rays transport
- Propagation of Galactic Cosmic Rays through the heliosphere with HelMod: the treatment of solar modulation
- Cosmic rays propagation in heliosphere and HelMod model
- Local interstellar spectra from Galprop-HelMod join effort
HelMod Model: forecasting of cosmic rays fluxes through heliosphere and heliospheric boundaries
- HelMod heliosphere
- Heliospheric boundaries in HelMod: time dependent termination shock and heliopause
- HelMod Forecasting
Magnetosphere transport models
ASIF and irradiation facilites
A comprehenseve treatment of the screened relativistic physical processes is found in: C. Leroy and P.G. Rancoita (2016), Principles of Radiation Interaction in Matter and Detection - 4th Edition -, World Scientific. Singapore, ISBN-978-981-4603-18-8 (printed); ISBN.978-981-4603-19-5 (ebook); http://www.worldscientific.com/worldscibooks/10.1142/9167; it is also partially accessible via google books.